Nutrition Fact: Eating Fish Can Be Healthy and Sustainable!

Baked Salmon

Photo Credit: Minnesota Dept. of Health

Did you know the average American eats less than half the recommended 8 ounces/week?  Before I started studying nutrition, I must admit that I ate very little to no fish as well.  However, after just my first nutrition class several years ago, I quickly learned how essential this food is to your health and slowly trained myself to eat more fish.  And now after living in Seattle for almost 5 years, I totally love fish—well most of them at least!  Definitely helps that you can find very fresh fish here. 🙂 So I thought I’d share why fish is so important to our health and what inspired me to start eating more fish.

What are the Health Benefits of Fish? 

  1. Promotes Heart Health.  Studies show that just two servings of fish a week can reduce your risk of dying from a heart attack by 30%!  This is mainly because of the omega-3 fatty acids it contains which I wrote about in more detail earlier here. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish contain both eicosopentaenoic acid (EPA) and docoshexaenoic acid (DHA) which has been shown to decrease triglyceride levels, blood pressure, and the growth of atherosclerotic plaque, as well as increase HDL (good cholesterol)—all of which are protective against heart disease.
  2. May Reduce Cancer Risk.  Early research suggests that EPA may inhibit growth of certain cancers
  3. Great source of nutrition. Fish is a filling lean protein that is high in vitamins and minerals such as Vitamin D, Calcium, and Magnesium.

What about Contaminants? 

While fish is the BEST source of EPA and DHA in the diet which is what makes fish an essential part of a healthy diet, it’s also a major source of mercury and other potentially toxic environmental contaminants.  However, in moderation and with increased knowledge, eating the right amounts and kinds of fish actually can minimize your risk of potential contaminants while receiving the beneficial nutrients they contain.  Here’s what you need to know:

  • Mercury –  Today, most fish contain trace amounts of mercury, but a handful have especially high levels which should be avoided, especially for pregnant women and young children.  To avoid fish high in mercury, avoid consuming these fish regularly or at all: tilefish, swordfish, king mackerel, marlin, and shark.  The basic rule of thumb is the larger the fish, the longer they’ve lived in the ocean and the more plankton-eating fish containing trace amounts of mercury they’ve consumed leading to higher the levels of mercury.   Commonly eaten fish such as shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, Pollock, and catfish are all low in mercury. 
  • PCBs- Certain rivers and lakes are exposed to this synthetic chemical carcinogen used in many industrial and commercial operations and thus contaminate our fish supply.  Look for statewide coastal advisories on PCBs to know whether or not certain fish may contain higher amounts.  The good news is that proper cooking methods can reduce your exposure.  Since most of the PCBs get stuck on the skin and excess fat, try these tips to reduce PCB’s in your seafood:
  1. Grilling or broiling is better than frying since it allows fat to drain away which is often were the most PCB’s are found. 
  2. Before cooking, remove the skin and fat from the fish      

What are Recommendations for Fish Consumption?

Serving amount Frequency
American Heart Association 3.5 ounces 2 times/week
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 3 ounces At least 2 times/week
For Pregnant women and young children Up to 12 ounces Per week (low mercury fish) 

How to Eat Fish Sustainably?

red-snapper-sli_7496_600x450

Photo Credit: Enric Sala, NatGeo

The other day I went to a great talk by National Geographic Explore in Residence, Dr. Enric Sala.  I had heard some of what he talked about before in terms of over fishing but he really helped explain how real the problem of overfishing is and the detrimental effects it’s having on our ocean habitats and the entire food systems and ecosystems.  He’s doing a lot of policy and advocacy work to improve the sustainability of how we fish but in the meantime, they’ve compiled a great interactive chart that lays out what we as consumers can do to eat fish that are sustainably caught and reduce demand for fish that are endangered or very unsustainably fished.  It also includes information on mercury levels and other toxins.  You can view it here.

My Recommendations:

To keep your exposure to mercury and other toxins low, promote the health of our oceans and marine environments, and still receive the health benefits fish offer, here are the best fish to consume at least 8 ounces a week:

  • Wild Alaskan Salmon
  • US Farmed Catfish 
  • Farmed or wild Bass
  • US or Central America Farmed Tilapia
  • US Farmed Rainbow Trout
  • Atlantic Herring
  • Pacific Sardines
  • Pacific Sole
  • US Mahi Mahi
  • US Pacific Cod
  • US Albacore or Yellowfin Tuna (but high in mercury so eat less than twice a week)
  • Alaskan Black Cod (but high in mercury so eat less than twice a week)

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Nutrition Fact: Spicing up your Foods with Tumeric is Good for your Health!

Photo Credit: Mercola.com

I just finished reading Dr. Raj Patel’s book “The Healthy Indian Diet” which talks about the health benefits of the traditional Indian diet and explains what things have changed in the last few decades that have caused the sub-continent to experience such high rates of chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes and heart disease.  If you don’t know much about chronic diseases or are interested in understanding how the Indian diet has shifted to more Western habits, it’s a great read.  My favorite part of the book are the recipes included in the back so I encourage you to check it out!

One of the things I found most interesting about the book was the section about the health benefits of the spices used in south Asian cooking.  While some of the health benefits of spices have little scientific research supporting their health claims to date, turmeric is one spice that actually has some science to back it up and is actually a staple in any south Asian dish so I thought I’d share why it’s good for you.

What is Tumeric?

The Tumeric spice comes from a plant of the giner family which is native to South Asia.  This uniquely South Asian spice is used in cooking for its deep yellow-orange color and medicinal qualities.  In Hindi Tumeric is called haldi and in Bengali we call it halud. The active ingredient in turmeric is called curcumin and has an earthy, slightly bitter, peppery flavor with a mustardy smell.

What are the Health Benefits?

1. May help prevent cancer. Initial animal studies done at UCLA have shown that curcumin seems to suppress the action of NF-kappa B which promotes cancer cells to live forever and grow and thus reduced tumor size in mice.  Additionally, studies from the Anderson Cancer Center has found that purified curcumin may be helpful in treating certain cancer patients if given concurrently with chemotherapy and radiotherapy because of it’s anti-inflammatory abilities and lack of side effects.  The research is still very limited showing it can help prevent cancer but it definitely has anti-inflammatory qualities that are always good for you!   

2. May help prevent Alzheimer’s Disease. The evidence supporting this health benefit is extremely weak right now.  Most of it is based on observational studies looking at the low Alzheimer’s rates in India compared to other parts of the world.  However, scientists are beginning o see Alzheimer’s disease as an inflammatory disease and since regular use of NSAID’s like aspirin are shown to be associated with lower Alzheimer’s rates, curcumin may also help lower Alzheimer’s by reducing inflammation in a similar way, particularly the oxidation of beta-amyloid, a protein intimately linked to Alzheimer’s disease.  Again, the scientific evidence here is still very limited but again the anti-inflammatory characteristics are clear and coupled with observational studies of lower rates in India, may mean that it could help in the prevention of Alzheimer’s.  

3. May improve cholesterol levels. A small study in 10 healthy adults using 500 mg of curcumin found that HDL-cholesterol (good cholesterol) increased by 30% and total cholesterol decreased by 10%.  While larger studies and further research is very much needed, this study is a promising one showing that turmeric consumption might help improve cholesterol levels in humans.

4. Helps prevent or reduce inflammation.  The evidence looking at the anti-inflammatory characteristics of curcumin are pretty strong which is why more research is needed to determine whether those qualities and in what amount in fact help reduce cancer risk and even heart disease which is caused by inflammation in humans.     

How to Eat it?

  1. Black pepper improves absorption of curcumin so make sure to use black pepper when you use turmeric.
  2. Add it to sautéed veggies.  ½ teaspoon complemented with some cumin and black pepper would work.
  3. Add a teaspoon when cooking quinoa or rice for some added color and flavor.
  4. Add to soups or stews.
  5. Add to any curry dish, it is a main ingredient for curry powder anyway. 🙂
  6. Toss with roasted cauliflower or sweet potatoes.
  7. East more South Asian food 🙂

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Nutrition Fact: Eating Breakfast is Good for Your Health

Breakfast is one of the most important meals of the day for both adults and especially kids. After no food for 8-12 hours of sleep (or how ever long you sleep), your brain needs food to re- charge.

Source: The Daily Green

I’m sure you’ve heard breakfast is the most important meal of the day.  In fact, surveys show that 90% of Americans know that breakfast is important, yet only 15-49% of Americans actually eat breakfast.  I think part of the reason is that even though we know it’s food for us, we don’t really fully understand why and how important it really is. I will admit, I’m not a super big breakfast person and before I started studying nutrition I was okay skipping breakfast most days because I never felt particularly hungry right when I woke up.  But after really learning why it’s so important,  I never skip breakfast anymore and I hope this post will help explain why and inspire you to start eating breakfast everyday too.

Why is Breakfast So Important? 

The reason eating breakfast is so important is because even though you’re sleeping your body still uses energy.  Obviously you don’t require as much energy while asleep as when you’re physically active, but our organs never stop working so do use up energy!  After waking up in the morning, your body actually uses up all of its energy stores stored in your liver and you need breakfast to help replenish your reserve and maintain normal everyday functions.  Our bodies only have enough room to store about 10 hours of energy, so after dinner and rest, by the time you wake up your stores in the liver will be all depleted. Now you may say, well I’ve been skipping breakfast for years and my body had energy and you never noticed a problem.  Well that’s because our bodies are really good at trying to keep us alive.  So when it runs out of glycogen (our main energy source, particularly for our brains), our body then starts to breakdown our lean body mass (or muscles) in order to obtain more energy until you finally eat lunch or a snack.  The reason this is bad is that just by skipping breakfast, you’re losing muscle, and muscle is important for maintaining our metabolic rate.

3 Reasons to Stop Skipping Breakfast: 

1. Eating breakfast helps you lose or maintain a healthy weight.  First, it helps prevent loss of lean body mass keeping or improving your metabolism.  And second,  studies show that people who eat breakfast daily eat fewer calories throughout the day since it helps to curb appetite and prevents binge eating.

3. Eating breakfast helps you think clearer.  Particularly for kids, studies show that kids who ate breakfast performed better on standardized tests and have faster memory recall.

4. Eating breakfast helps you acquire important nutrients and vitamins from food that would be harder to achieve throughout the day if you missed a meal.

What are the Essentials of a Healthy Breakfast? 

  • Whole grains. This provides fiber and other important nutrients, as well as energy for your brain.  Examples include whole-grain breads, bagels, hot or cold whole-grain cereals, crackers, or tortillas.
  • Low-fat protein. Protein coupled with your carbs help provide additional satiety so you stay full longer.  Examples include peanut butter, lean meat, poultry or fish, greek yogurt, or hard-boiled or scrambled eggs.
  • Low-fat dairy. Dairy provides some protein and also important nutrients like Calcium and Vitamin D.  Examples include skim milk, low-fat yogurts and low-fat cheeses, such as cottage and natural cheeses.
  • Fruits and vegetables. These provide tons of vitamins and minerals are are low in calories.  Also, many fruits and veggies are high in antioxidants.  Examples include fresh or frozen fruits and vegetable like blueberries and strawberries, 100 percent juice beverages without added sugar, or fruit and vegetable smoothies.

Still Need Some Quick and Easy Breakfast Ideas? 

For those days you’re in a hurry and just need to grab and go here’s a few ideas you can try:

  • Breakfast Bars that are high in fiber and protein with a piece of fruit
  • Piece of fruit (banana or apple), string cheese, and handful of nuts
  • Whole grain bagel with light cream cheese and a banana (add hard boiled egg for additional protein)
  • String cheese, fruit, and whole wheat crackers
When you have at least 10-15 minutes or more to prepare and eat breakfast here’s a few ideas: 
  • Greek non-fat yogurt with whole grain cereal or granola and frozen berries
  • Breakfast burrito with scrambled eggs or egg whites and vegetables in whole wheat tortilla
  • Instant whole grain oatmeal with greek yogurt and fresh fruit
  • Breakfast smoothie: greek yogurt or skim milk, banana, and/or frozen berries
  • Fiber-rich bran flakes or cereal with 1 cup skim milk and berries or a piece of fruit
  • Peanut butter and jelly sandwich or toast on whole wheat, non-fat milk, and fruit

Now that you know the importance of eating breakfast and what are examples of healthy breakfast options, make a goal to eat breakfast everyday!  If you need to, start slow at first!

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Nutrition Fact: Proper Hydration is Important to Overall Health

The Importance of Good Hydration

We all lose water throughout the day just from breathing, perspiration, urine and bowel movements. Did you know that as little as a 2% reduction in hydration begins to impair every physiological function in our bodies? So in order for the body to function optimally, this water needs to be replaced by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water.

Source: Body,health,fitness Blog

 

Why is water important? 

Water plays a crucial role in every physiological function in the body. It helps flush toxins out of vital organs and carries nutrients from food to cells for energy. Water also regulates hormones, body temperature, and the digestive process (preventing constipation). Joints, skin, and internal organs also all depend on water to function properly.  Also, proper hydration is important to maintain proper weight. A study from researchers from Virginia Tech found that drinking 16 oz. of water before meals three times a day over 12 weeks led to an increased average weight loss by about 5 lbs., compared to those who did not increase water intake before meals.  So having enough water could help you control your appetite and your intake helping to maintain proper weight or lose weight.

How do I know if I’m properly hydrated?  

One way to tell if you’re properly hydrated is your urine should be clear and relatively odor-free. Dark yellow or cloudy urine is often a sign of dehydration. Another sign of dehydration is thirst. If you’re only drinking water when you’re thirsty, you’re probably not drinking enough water. And if you’re really dehydrated, you could experience other signs such as: dry mouth, headaches, muscle cramps, fatigue, inability to concentrate, dizziness and nausea.  Also, many times, dehydration often can feel like hunger, so next time you feel hungry and you’ve already eaten, try drinking water to get yourself properly hydrated again.

How Much Water Should I Drink?   

How much water you need to drink per day depends on several factors, including exercise, the environment, injury or illness, and pregnancy or breast feeding. In addition, food contributes roughly 20 percent to overall hydration needs. Although specific recommendations vary among organizations, it is generally accepted that if an adult consumes two liters — or a little more than eight cups — of water daily in addition to a normal diet, this satisfies hydration needs.

Instances where more water may need to be consumed include before, during, and after exercise, exercising in hot weather, if you are ill or injured, or during pregnancy or breast feeding. Sports drinks that contain sodium and potassium (electrolytes) are generally only necessary when exercising vigorously for an hour or longer, otherwise water is always the best source for hydrations.  Beware of the high caloric count in sports drinks. Even drinks that claim to have 10 calories per serving often have two to three servings per bottle so the calories can add up if you were drinking enough.

While caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea and soda do count towards hydration, water is still the best choice because it is stimulant and calorie free.

Tips to Increase Daily Water Intake

  • Carry a large water bottle and drink from it throughout the day.
  • Drink a full glass of water with each meal or snack.
  • Drink a full glass of water whenever taking medication.
  • Drink water before, during and after exercise.
  • Add a slice of lemon, lime or a handful of raspberries to water to add a little flavor.
  • Instead of soda, try sparkling water with some berries or a hint of fruit juice for flavor.
  • When drinking alcohol, alternate every alcoholic beverage with a glass of sparkling water.
  • When drinking juice, fill half of the glass with juice and top it off with water.
  • While water is the best source of hydration, your body does get some water intake through other beverages and foods.  Here’s a great diagram that shows one potential recommendation of how to balance beverage intake to optimize health benefits of certain beverages and mitigate the excess calories of others.

    Source: The Drinking Water Research Foundation

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Featured Food: Red Chili Peppers

I LOVE eating spicy food so am obviously really excited to see that there is some research showing consuming red chili peppers may actually have more health benefits than I thought! I always knew red peppers were high in vitamins and minerals because of its bright red color, but research is now also showing other health benefits from red chili peppers derived from its high concentration of a substance known as capsaicin found in the pepper family of vegetables.

Source: LimonChili Blog

Did you know?

Chili peppers have been planted as a crop for the last 6,000 years.   They were first discovered in Central and South America and slowly introduced to other parts of the world like Europe, India, China and other parts of Asia.  The active compounds of chili peppers that provide the spicy pungent flavors are called capasaicinoids. When chili peppers are consumed, capsaicinoids bind with pain receptors in the mouth and throat that are responsible for sensing heat. These receptors are then activated and send messages to the brain that the person has consumed something hot and the brain responds to the burning sensation by raising the heart rate, increasing perspiration and release of endorphins.  Hence– the pungent and spicy reaction you feel when consuming them.

Nutrition Facts

Chili Peppers, especially red ones are high in vitamins and minerals.  They are a good source of Dietary Fiber, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folate, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus and Copper.  Additionally, they are a very good source of Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, Vitamin B6, Potassium and Manganese.

What is most interesting is that one small chilli pepper provides more than 100% of your daily needs of Vitamin C!  Do you still need more reasons to like spicy foods?  Well in case you do, I have a few more additional health benefits to share.

Health Benefits 

Immunity. The bright red color of red chili peppers indicates its high content of beta-carotene or pro-vitamin A. Vitamin A is essential for healthy epithelial tissues including the mucous membranes that line the nasal passages, lungs, intestinal tract and urinary tract and serve as the body’s first line of defense against invading pathogens.  Moreover, red chili peppers are an excellent source of Vitamin C which is not only an antioxidant, but has been shown to stimulate while blood cell production which helps to fight infections.

Heart Health.  Some studies have shown that capsaicinoids from chilies can lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol.  A team of researchers from Hong Kong found that capsaicin and a close chemical relative boost heart health in two ways. First, they lower cholesterol levels by reducing accumulation of cholesterol in the body and increasing its breakdown and excretion in the feces. Second, they block action of a gene that makes arteries contract, restricting the flow of blood to the heart and other organs. The blocking action allows more blood to flow through blood vessels.  While the evidence supporting heart health seems promising, these studies have mostly been conducted via animal studies so we need more research testing the effect in humans before we know for sure how beneficial capsaicinoids can be in humans and whether or not supplements and actual red peppers pose any difference in effectiveness.  So for now, I would avoid taking capsaicin supplements, but if you eat the real thing you could hope to see some positive effects when it comes to your heart health.

Weight loss. While red chili should not be used as a weight loss supplement, there is some evidence that capsaicin can either help reduce hunger and/or increase energy expenditure.  There’s a few caveats to these findings.  First, studies that found that red pepper increased energy expenditure, used an amount that was not acceptable for the average American. (10g/meal).  Second, other studies looking at appetite and hunger actually found that the effect of curbing appetite was much stronger in individuals who were not used to eating spicy foods.  So for those of us that can eat enough red pepper to help increase energy expenditure, we probably would not also get the benefit of reducing appetite and vice versa.   In addition, the research shows that using capsaicin supplements you lose the effect because part of the effect is caused from the heat and spiciness reactions from eating chili peppers which is lost through supplement use.  So, while this is no miracle diet food or supplement for weight loss, for some of us eating red chilies we might have some additional benefit related to weight loss, whether it’s through reduced appetite or through increased energy expenditure.

Pain Relief. Capaisin used topically has been shown to be an effective treatment for cluster headaches and osteoarthritis pain.  Additionally, it has been shown be an effective treatment for pain management for diabetic neuropathy.   The main side effect reported with topical capsaicin cream is a burning sensation at the area of application.

How to eat it

Spice up your food and enjoy red chili peppers either raw, dried, or sprinkled on top of your favorite foods.  You could use dried cayenne pepper spice, red crushed pepper, chili powder, or paprika.  Remember, Crushed/Ground red pepper and cayenne pepper spice have the most antioxidants, and then chili powder and paprika.

  • In South Asian and Asian cooking, you can just toss whole chili peppers or dried chili peppers into your dish while cooking to release the flavors while cooking.
  • When using dried cayenne pepper or crushed red pepper, try adding it to any sauteed vegetable dish, on top of pastas, sauces, pizzas, or in curries.
  • I also love adding cayenne or ground red pepper to any greens with a hint of fresh lemon.
  • Cayenne pepper also tastes great mixed in chocolate– add it to a dark chocolate ganache, hot chocolate, etc.

Last weekend I made truffles and filled it with chocolate ganache with a hint of cayenne pepper 🙂

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Featured Food: Quinoa

Quinoa is a grain that originates from the Andean region of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Columbia and has been cultivated for the last 5,000 years by the Incas.  Even before I travelled to Bolivia I always loved this grain, but after trying it there and seeing it grown in the Andes where very little other vegetation grew because of poor soil, I had an increased fascination with this grain.  Not only is it high in fiber, protein, and vitamins and minerals like iron and calcium, but it’s so versatile and can be eaten so many ways.

Quinoa growing in Andes region of Bolivia

Health Benefits

Quinoa has been known to be called a “superfood” mostly because of its high protein content (18%) and its balanced set of essential amino acids making it a complete protein source.  Additionally, it is a good source of fiber, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, copper, and iron.  And for those that are gluten intolerant, quinoa is also gluten-free!

Here’s the nutrition facts:

Source: Quinoa Corporation

Are there any nutritional differences between regular and red quinoa?

  Regular (per ¼ c uncooked quinoa) Red (per ¼ c uncooked quinoa)
Protein

6 g per

6 g

Fiber

3 g

5 g

Iron

20% DV

10% DV

Fat

2.5 g

2 g

Source: Livestrong

As you can see, they are both highly nutritious and differ slightly in fiber content and iron, with red quinoa being the better choice for fiber but regular quinoa being the better choice for iron.  I personally use both interchangeably in order to maximize benefits from both.

How to Eat It: 

Quinoa can be used in salads, soups, baked goods, pilafs, casseroles, cereals, pastas and can be served for breakfast, lunch, or dinner.  Can you say versatile or what?

Basic preparation:

  1. Rinse several times and soak quinoa for about 5- 15 minutes
  2. Boil 2 cups of water (can use vegetable or chicken stock instead if using for more savory dishes)
  3. Add 1 cup washed quinoa to boiling water, cover and simmer, about 15 minutes until water is fully absorbed

Here’s a few recipes that I like:

  1. Curried Quinoa Pilaf (I usually add chickpeas and red and yellow bell peppers for added protein and color)
  2. Black Bean Quinoa Salad (I added avocado when I made it) and Caprese Quinoa Salad 
  3. Breakfast Quinoa
  4. Quinoa Cakes (Haven’t made these yet, but had quinoa cakes in Bolivia and was in love so will need to try making it myself!)
  5. Quinoa Kitchuri (My cousin’s awesome recipe…and follow her blog for more amazing recipes while you’re at it!)

Quinoa Cakes in Bolivia!

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Nutrition Fact: Not All Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids are Equal

You’ve all heard that omega-3 fatty acids are good for you but you may not know why and the best ways to get it so let me try to clarify a few things first.

  • Omega-3 fatty acids are a class of polyunsaturated fatty acids and α-linolenic acid is one form that is essential for metabolism but not synthesized by the body so needs to be received from diet.
  • α-linolenic acid (ALA) is converted to long-chain forms of omega-3’s, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the body.
    • The conversion from ALA to EPA is only 5-10%
    • The conversion from ALA to DHA is only 0.1-1.0%.
    • EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids can be directly consumed in the diet from fish and small amounts from chicken.

What are health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids?

  • The omega-3 ALA has not been shown to show the same beneficial health benefits as EPA and DHA.
  • EPA and DHA have been found to be beneficial for infant growth, neural and retinal development, heart disease protection, and some evidence of reducing risk of coronary heart disease.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA have been shown to decrease triglyceride levels, decrease growth rate of atherosclerotic plaque, and slightly lower high blood pressure.

What are sources of omega-3 fatty acids?

  • ALA is commonly found in chloroplast of green leafy veggies, flaxseeds, chia, and walnuts.  But remember, the conversion to EPA and DHA is fairly inefficient from these sources.
  • EPA and DHA is best consumed from cold water oily fish like salmon, sardines, mackerel, anchovies, and herring but is found in small amounts in most other seafoods too.

Source: Cornerstone Wellness and Rebuild Blog

Official Recommendations

Organizations Official Recommendations
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2 servings of fish per week, preferable from fatty fish  (500 mg/day EPA and DHA)
National Cholesterol Education Program Fish is recommended as a food item for people to choose more often as protein
World Health Organization Regular fish consumption (1-2 servings/week; each serving should provide 200-500 mg EPA and DHA)

* 8 ounces of cooked fatty fish per week is equivalent to 500 mg/day of EPA and DHA

 Other Useful Tips to Know

  • Farmed salmon actually has more EPA and DHA than wild salmon but both are excellent sources of omega-3’s.
  • White albacore tuna has twice as much EPA and DHA as light tuna.
  • Omega-3 from foods is always better than from supplements.  One of the reasons is that often times supplements actually just contain ALA which does not have the true health benefits you want which come from EPA and DHA.  Additionally, if you get fish oil supplements, it’s difficult to determine what fish they use and also the level of mercury in the fish, especially if they extract it from the fish skin.  So unless your doctor recommended increased intake of omega-3, you can get plenty from a healthy diet.
    • If you do take supplements, the FDA recommends that consumers not exceed more than a total of 3 grams per day of EPA and DHA, with no more than 2 grams per day from dietary supplements.  (unless otherwise recommended by your doctor)
  • While Flaxseeds don’t convert to EPA and DHA as efficiently as from fish, it’s a great food that can be added easily in your diet.  Make sure you use ground flaxseed and not whole.  Ground flaxseed is also preferable to flaxseed oil because in addition to omega-3 fatty acids, the seeds contain fiber, protein, vitamins, and minerals.  Try to add about 2 tablespoons of ground flaxseed to cold and hot cereals, oatmeal, batters, yogurts, salads, milkshakes, or smoothies.  I personally add it to cereals and milkshakes to to make them more nutritious.
  • Walnuts are also good sources so try adding it to your yogurt in the mornings or blend in your milkshakes or smoothies.  Because walnuts are a soft nut, they blend really well into milkshakes and not only do they add omega-3’s, but also adds a little bit more protein.
  • Canola and soybean oil both are good sources of omega-3 so try cooking with those oils from time to time and use flaxseed or walnut oil in salad dressings.
  • If you want to find out the EPA content of various types of seafood check out the USDA website and search their database. When looking at the full nutrient profile, you can find the amount of EPA by looking at the amount listed under 20:5 (the scientific abbreviation for EPA).

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